DISPOSITIONS OF THE CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL CODE OF THAILAND
An immovable property may be subjected to a usufruct by virtue of which the usufructuary is entitled to the possession, use and enjoyment of the property. He has the right of management of the property. The usufruct of a forest, mine or quarry entitles the usufructuary to the exploitation of the forest, mine or quary.
A usufruct may be created either for a period of time or for the life of the usufructary.
If no time has been fixed, it is presumed that the usufruct is for the life of the usfructuary.
If it is created for a period of time, the provisions of Section 1403 paragraph 3 shall apply mutatis mutandis. In any case the usufuct comes to an end on the death of the usufructuary.
If property is destroyed without compensation being paid, the owner is not bound to restore it; but, if he does so to any extent, the usufruct revives to that extent.
If any compensation is paid, the owner or the usufructary must restore the property so far as it is possible to do so, having regard to the amount of the
compensation received, and the usufruct revives to that extent; but, if restoration is impossible, the usufruct comes to an end and the compensation
must be divided between the owner and the usufructary in proportion to the damages suffered by the respectively.
The same rules apply mutatis mutandis in the case of expropriation as well as in the case of partial destruction of the property or of partial impossibility to
restore the property.
When the usufruct comes to an end, the usufructuary must return the property to the owner.
The usufructuary is liable for the destruction or depreciation in value of the property, unless he proves that the damage was not the cause of his own fault.
He must replace anything which he has wrongfully consumed. He is not bound to give compensation for depreciation in value caused by reasonable use.
The usufructary must, in the exercise of his rights, take as much care of the property as a person of ordinary prudence would take of his own property.
Unless otherwise provided in the act creating the usufruct, the usufructary may transfer the exercise of his right to a third person. In such case, the owner of the property may sue the transferee directly.
The owner may object to any unlawful or unreasonable use of the property. If the owner proves that his rights are in peril, he may demand security from the usufructary; except in the case of a donor who has reserved to himself the usufruct of the property given.
If the usufructary fails to give security within a reasonable time fixed for the purpose, or if, in spite of the owner's objection, he continues to make use of the property unlawfully or unreasonably, the Court may appoint a Receiver to manage the property in his stead. Upon security being given, the Court may release the Receiver so appointed.
The usufructary is bound to keep the substance of the property unaltered, and is responsible for ordinary maintenance and petty repairs.
If important repairs or measures are necessary for the preservation of the property, the usufructuary must forthwith inform the owner thereof and permit them to be carried out. In case of default by the owner, the usufructuary may have the work carried out at the owner's expense.
All extraordinary expenses must be borne by the owner, but in order to meet these or expenses coming under the foregoing section he may realize part of the property unless the usufructuary is willing to advance the necessary funds without charging interest.
The usufructary shall, for the duration of the usufruct, bear expenses for the management of the property, pay taxes and duties, and be responsible for interest payable on debts charged upon it.
If required by the owner, the usufructuary is bound to insure the property against loss for the benefit of the owner; and if the property is already insured, he is bound to renew such insurance when due.
He must pay the premiums of the insurance for the duration of his usufruct.
No action by the owner against the usufructuary or his transferee in connection with the usufruct or vice versa may be entered later than 1 year after the usufruct comes to an end; but in any action by the owner who could not have known of the end of the usufruct, the prescription of 1 year shall run from the time when he knew or ought to have know of it.